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What special information does odds ratio give that you do not get from a chi square and p value?

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What Special Information Does Odds Ratio Give That You Do Not Get from a Chi Square and P-Value?

When analyzing data in the field of statistics, understanding the different statistical measures and their interpretations is crucial. One commonly encountered scenario is comparing two groups or variables and determining if there is an association or relationship between them. In such cases, the odds ratio provides special information that is not obtained from a chi-square test and p-value alone. Let's explore the benefits of odds ratio and the conditions under which it is applicable.

Benefits of Odds Ratio:

  1. Quantifies the Strength of Association: The odds ratio measures the strength and direction of the association between two variables. It provides a numerical estimate of how much more likely an outcome is to occur in one group compared to another.

  2. Interprets the Direction of Association: The odds ratio allows us to determine whether the association between variables is positive or negative. If the odds ratio is greater than 1, it suggests a positive association, while a value less than 1 indicates a negative association.

  3. Considers Confounding Factors: Unlike chi-square and p-value, odds ratio takes into account the potential influence of confounding variables. By including additional factors in the analysis, it helps to control for their

Two solutions are proposed for the estimation of odds ratios (OR) when one or the two elements of the principal (A, D) or secondary (B, C) diagonals of a 2 x 2 matrix (A, B, C, D) are 0. The OR estimate is AD/BC. If A or D are 0, OR = 0; if B or C are 0, the OR is undefined.

Can you use Fisher exact test with 0?

The Fishers exact test is one of the Chi-2 family tests that examines the association or independence of the two quantities grouped by each other. Its use is also when the number of data in a group is at least equal to that of the other table cells. So you can use this test when faced with a zero value in a group.

What is the odds ratio division by zero?

Any positive number divided by zero is infinite. So simply state that the odds ratio is infinity. Go ahead and use the word, infinity, an abbreviation like Inf, or that sideways 8 symbol. Then use Fisher's Exact test to calculate the statistical significance.

What is the odds ratio in the Fisher test?

The odds ratio mostly works on nominal variables that have exactly two levels. The statistical test called Fisher's Exact for 2x2 tables tests whether the odds ratio is equal to 1 or not. It can also test whether the odds ratio is greater or less than 1.

What are odds of zero?

A probability of 0 is the same as odds of 0. Probabilities between 0 and 0.5 equal odds less than 1.0. A probability of 0.5 is the same as odds of 1.0. Think of it this way: The probability of flipping a coin to heads is 50%.

How do you interpret the odds ratio in chi-square?

This effect size is traditionally interpreted as like likelihood of group 1 to group 2. Therefore, an odds of 1 indicates they are equally likely. Odds less than 1 indicate that group 2 is more likely, and odds greater than 1 indicate that group 1 is more likely.

What are the significance tests for the odds ratio?

Significance Tests for the Odds Ratio The most common are the Fisher's Exact Probability test, the Pearson Chi-Square and the Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you interpret odds ratio for categorical variables?

The interpretation of the odds ratio depends on whether the predictor is categorical or continuous. Odds ratios that are greater than 1 indicate that the event is more likely to occur as the predictor increases. Odds ratios that are less than 1 indicate that the event is less likely to occur as the predictor increases.

What is the test for comparing odds ratios?

To test if two odds ratios are significantly different and get a p-value for the difference follow these steps: (1) Take the absolute value of the difference between the two log odds ratios. We will call this value δ. (4) Calculate the p-value from the z score.

Should I use chi-square or odds ratio?

As Lluis's mentioned in his answer, you would use a chi-square to TEST if an association exists. On the other hand, you would use an odds ratio, relative risk, hazard rate, etc. to MEASURE or quantify the association between a risk factor/covariate and an outcome.

What is significant about the odds ratio?

Odds ratios typically are reported in a table with 95% CIs. If the 95% CI for an odds ratio does not include 1.0, then the odds ratio is considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level.

What can be a reason not to use the chi-square test?

It cannot make comparisons between continuous variables or between categorical and continuous variables. Additionally, the Chi-Square Test of Independence only assesses associations between categorical variables, and can not provide any inferences about causation.

FAQ

How do you interpret odds ratio of 2?
Here it is in plain language. An OR of 1.2 means there is a 20% increase in the odds of an outcome with a given exposure. An OR of 2 means there is a 100% increase in the odds of an outcome with a given exposure. Or this could be stated that there is a doubling of the odds of the outcome.
How do you calculate effect size from odds ratio?
A systematic review may encompass both odds ratios and mean differences in continuous outcomes. A separate meta-analysis of each type of outcome results in loss of information and may be misleading. It is shown that a ln(odds ratio) can be converted to effect size by dividing by 1.81.
How do you compare odds ratios?
Thus the odds ratio is (a/b) / (c/d) which simplifies to ad/bc. This is compared to the relative risk which is (a / (a+b)) / (c / (c+d)). If the disease condition (event) is rare, then the odds ratio and relative risk may be comparable, but the odds ratio will overestimate the risk if the disease is more common.
How do you find the odds ratio between two variables?
So case control studies the measure of association that we would calculate is called an odds ratio odds ratios are just that a ratio of odds. So in this case will be the odds of being exposed to
How do you interpret odds ratio significance?
Odds ratios typically are reported in a table with 95% CIs. If the 95% CI for an odds ratio does not include 1.0, then the odds ratio is considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level.

What special information does odds ratio give that you do not get from a chi square and p value?

What is the formula for the odds ratio of exposure? In a 2-by-2 table with cells a, b, c, and d (see figure), the odds ratio is odds of the event in the exposure group (a/b) divided by the odds of the event in the control or non-exposure group (c/d).
Why is odds ratio non collapsible? 1984). The non-collapsibility of the OR derives from the fact that when the expected of outcome is modeled as a log odds of exposure, the marginal effect cannot be expressed as a weighted average of conditional effects. It is widely realized in epidemiologic research that the OR is not generally collapsible.
Can you calculate odds ratio in case series? Incidence is Unknown in a Case-Control Study In addition, one can also calculate an odds ratio in a cohort study, as we did in the two examples immediately above. In contrast, in a case-control study one can only calculate the odds ratio, i.e. an estimate of relative effect size, because one cannot calculate incidence.
How to calculate odds ratio in randomized controlled trial? In an RCT or cohort study, the odds ratio can be calculated as well. The odds ratio is then defined as the odds of the outcome in the treated patients divided by the odds of the outcome in the untreated patients.
What is the odds of exposure? Exposure odds ratio (OR): the odds of a particular exposure among persons with a specific health outcome divided by the corresponding odds of exposure among persons without the health outcome of interest.
  • What is the difference between chi-square and odds ratio?
    • Relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR) are used to measure (quantify) the strength (size) of association. Therefore, chi-square is categorized as a hypothesis testing (significant or not significant), meanwhile, RR and OR are measures of effect size. Effect size provides you a relative importance of the risk factor.
  • Which information does an odds ratio provide?
    • An odds ratio (OR) is a measure of association between an exposure and an outcome. The OR represents the odds that an outcome will occur given a particular exposure, compared to the odds of the outcome occurring in the absence of that exposure.
  • What kind of data Cannot use for chi-square tests?
    • The Chi-Square Test of Independence can only compare categorical variables. It cannot make comparisons between continuous variables or between categorical and continuous variables.
  • What is the difference between chi-square and logistic regression?
    • It turns out that the 2 X 2 contingency analysis with chi-square is really just a special case of logistic regression, and this is analogous to the relationship between ANOVA and regression. With chi-square contingency analysis, the independent variable is dichotomous and the dependent variable is dichotomous.
  • Can you get odds ratio from chi-square test?
    • One of the simplest ways to calculate an odds ratio is from a cross tabulation table. We usually analyze these tables with a categorical statistical test. There are a few options, depending on the sample size and the design, but common ones are Chi-Square test of independence or homogeneity, or a Fisher's exact test.